Dental English

Dentistry and Dental History

http://www.aichi-gakuin.ac.jp/~jeffreyb/dental/history.html
rough machine translation ... [ Eng=>Jpn ]

        Teeth are hard, calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaw that perform the function of chewing food. They are also necessary for pronunciation (f, v, th) and to maintain the shape of the face. An adult mouth contains 32 permanent teeth. A tooth consists of the crown (A1), the portion visible in the mouth, and one or more roots (A3) embedded in a gum socket. The gums (B5) cushion the teeth, while the jawbone firmly anchors the roots. The center of each tooth is filled with soft pulpy tissue containing blood vessels and nerves. Hard, bony dentin (B2) surrounds the pulp (B3) and makes up the bulk of the tooth. The root portion has an overlayer of cementum (B4), and the crown has a layer of enamel (B1), the hardest substance in the body.

        There are four kinds of human teeth. An adult has 8 incisors (CD1), 4 canine teeth (CD2)--sometimes called eyeteeth or stomach teeth, 8 bicuspids (CD3)--also known as premolar teeth, and 12 molars (CD4) or grinders, including the wisdom teeth. Children have a set of 20 teeth--milkteeth--that fall out and are replaced by this set of 32 permanent teeth.

        Modern dentists repair cavities (dental caries) by drilling them out, then filling them in with fillings, bonding, or resin. When teeth are beyond repair they pull them out and replace them with false teeth--a bridge, a plate, or a full set of dentures. The first metal dental fillings were installed by English surgeons way back in 1673.

        But it wasn't until 1844 that Boston dentist Horace Wells pioneers anaesthesiology. after learning how to administer nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") from Gardner Colton. Wells first used it to deaden pain while extracting his own tooth. A year later he attempted to demonstrate use of the gas for a class at Harvard Medical School. His patient, however, was not completely anaesthetized when Wells pulled the tooth and thus failed to impress his audience.
        Two years later another Boston dentist William Thomas Green Moton made a similar discovery. Unfamiliar with C. W. Long's 1842 ether discovery, he attended a lecture by chemist Charles T. Jackson and learned that inhaling sulfuric ether can cause a loss of consciousness. He tried the gas on himself and on his dog before using it to extract a tooth from a patient. News of the painless extraction was leaked to the newspapers, where Boston surgeon Henry Jacob Bigelow read about it. He then persuaded Morton to demonstrate his procedure at Massachusetts General Hospital when surgeon John Collins Warren used ether on a patient during an operation. Ether found immediate use in operations on Mexican War casualties, opening a new era in surgery as well as dentistry.

        In 1875 Kalamazoo, Mich., inventor George F. Green patented an electric dental drill. He assigned his patent on "electro-magnetic dental tools" for sawing, filing, dressing, and polishing teeth to Samuel S. White of Philadelphia whose company became the leading U.S. producer of dental equipment, but use of electric drills had to wait for the development of lighter engines and less expensive batteries.

        In 1945 a fluoridation program at Grand Rapids, Mich. was the first attempt to fluoridate community water supplies in order to reduce the number of cavities in children. A similar plan in Newburgh, N.Y., follows aroused wide-spread opposition.

References

[ Jpn=>Eng ] ... rough machine translations ... [ Eng=>Jpn ]

Luciano, Vander, and Sherman (1978). Human Function and Structure. London and Tokyo:McGraw-Hill.

Unknown (1996). The World Almanac and Book of Facts. Funk and Wagnalls Corporation.

Wales, J. et. al. (2005). Dentistry. http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki /Dentistry .


Discussion Questions

Teeth
How important are teeth? What are their functions?
Which animals have teeth? Which don't?
Why do most human adults have 32 teeth? How many do other animals have?
Do some adult animals grow new teeth? Why not humans?
Why are baby teeth replaced be adult teeth?
What are the eight kinds of teeth?
What is the smallest tooth? the largest?

What is the structure of teeth? How much do they weigh?
Why are teeth so hard? How hard are they?
Why are teeth white?
What is enamel? Who discovered it? When? What is its chemical formula? What is dentin?
What is cementum? Is there more than one kind? What differences are there?
What are "sprout cells"? How do they make enamel, dentin, and cement?
How does the enamel calcify?

What is plaque?
What kinds of bacteria and viruses live in the mouth?
What causes tooth aches? cavities? gum disease?
How does "amiraze" prevent cavities?
What gum diseases are there? What are the symptoms?
At what age do people's teeth start falling out? Why?
How many teeth do most people have left at 50? 60? 70? 80? 90?
How would you like not having any teeth?

How many teeth do you have? Have all your wisdom teeth come out? Have any of them been pulled out?
Have you had any cavities? What can people do to prevent them?

Do you use toothpaste when you brush? What brand?
How do you brush your teeth?
Do you floss? How often?
Wild animals do not brush their teeth? Do they get cavities? Why not?
Do you "wash" your teeth? with what?

What do Japanese children do with the teeth that come out? Do they put them under their pillows? Do they get any money from the Tooth Fairy?
Have you ever had braces? Do you want or need to get your teeth straightened?
How often do you visit a dentist for a check-up?
When did you decide to become a dentist? What do you think you'll like about being a dentest? What do you think you'll dislike?

Dentistry
When did dentistry begin? How has it changed over the years?
What tools do dentists use? How much do they cost? When were they invented?
Are there different kinds of drills? What sized are they? What are they made of?
What's a laser drill? How does it work?
What dental techniques have you practiced at AGU?

Did you like your dentist when you were a child?
Why did you decide to become a dentist? When?

When did toothbrushes become popular?
When did people start flossing?

Photos and Links

Links (other than references)
none

Photos--Used with Permission
none

Photos--Permission Pending
http://www.innerbody.com/image/teet05.gif etc.
http://www.m-w.com/mw/art/tooth.gif
http://www.otsuka-biyo.co.jp/new/tooth/img/tooth_10_case1.jpg
http://kidshealth.org/image/misc_pages/Pdental_t6.gif


Last updated March 2006
Copyright (C) 2001-2006 by Jeff Blair
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